A Complete Guide to Espresso Android Testing 

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A Complete Guide to Espresso Android Testing

Despite the popularity of Apple devices, there’s absolutely no question that it’s still important to develop and conduct user interface (UI) tests for Android apps. In this domain, Espresso is one of many important tools allowing you to do just that.

The Espresso Testing Framework allows engineers to produce a better product, one that operates fully and properly, and delivers on all that it promises to users.

In this Espresso Android testing tutorial, we’ll examine the Espresso Android Testing Framework. Consider this an entry point to understanding the differences between Espresso, XCTest, and Appium. We’ll share how Espresso Testing works, best practices, and we’ll even explain activity that will help you to get started with Kobiton’s experienced QA team.

A Complete Guide to Espresso Android Testing

What is Espresso Testing in Android?

What is the Difference Between Espresso, XCTest, and Appium?

How Espresso Testing Works?

Basic Concepts and Terminology of Espresso

Example Test Case of Espresso Testing

How to Run an Espresso Test in Kobiton

Advanced Espresso Techniques

RecyclerView Testing

Combining Matchers

Custom ViewMatchers, ViewActions, and ViewAssertions

Handling UI Components Outside App Context

Repeated Test Runs with Different Parameters

Get Started with Kobiton Today

What is Espresso Testing in Android?

Espresso is a UI framework to create and run automated tests for Android applications. It can be run on a real-world device, or an emulator. Espresso provides a simple API, automatic synchronization, and loads of data.

Espresso framework tests are especially preferred by developers familiar with the Android ecosystem, due to its integration with Android Studio and ease of use. It’s an important tool for organizations on the scale of, say, Google; it’s equally helpful for smaller startups. It helps to make sure that every function and button operates properly.

To put it simply, you can file this under: “Need to know.” Let’s get started with a few key concepts — and best practices.

What is the Difference Between Espresso, XCTest, and Appium?

To understand the difference between Espresso, XCTest and Appium, let’s review the table below.

EspressoXCTestAppium
LanguageJavaswift/objective-CAny
Code RequiredYesYesNo
FlakinessLowLowHigh
Used ByAndroid DevelopersiOS DevelopersQA

How Espresso Testing Works

If you’re getting started with Espresso testing, Kobiton is here to help with industry experience and the know-how it takes to realize objectives more efficiently. Ready to understand how to run Espresso tests? Here’s an Android testing: Espresso example.

There are three general steps when running an Espresso test:

  • Select a View from the options provided
  • Conduct an action within that view
  • Make your assertions for the view

Espresso also offers a powerful synchronization mechanism, to guarantee that test activity won’t run ahead of UI events.

Basic Concepts and Terminology of Espresso

Next, let’s cover some of the basic concepts and terminology found in the Espresso testing universe. It will help us understand Android Espresso test examples and best practices, later.

  • Espresso Test Matcher allows users to match a view using its attributes such as Id and Text. It matches attributes of the view and applies them to types of views.
  • ViewAction components define an action that has yet to be performed on a View.
  • ViewAssertion provides a generic ViewAssertion which asserts that a view exists in the view hierarchy.
  • View Interactions provides an interface to complete actions or asserts on views.
  • Espresso-Intents is an Espresso extension to validate and stubbing of intents sent out by the application under test. When we stub an intent, we are able to intercept it so the intent is never sent to the system, and specify how it should respond.
  • Idling Resource represents an operation whose results impact other, subsequent operations in a UI test.
  • Synchronization of test actions with the UI takes place automatically.
  • Flakiness occurs when a test produces different results, without any changes being made to the testing parameters.
  • Espresso Setup is the first step to begin testing.
  • Test Runner is a tool for the automation of test execution.

Example Test Case of Espresso Testing 

Now, let’s consider a simple test case, one that might help you understand the Espresso testing process. Below is an Android testing: Espresso example.

How to Run an Espresso Test in Kobiton

Here are the steps you might take when integrating Appium Inspector with Kobiton, or learning about how to run Espresso tests. Not only is Kobiton able to help you improve UI with Espresso, but we can help you plan for streamlined development of apps for other platforms, as well. Our professional staff take pride in educating clients as we proceed, so that you’ll always be confident Espresso testing with Kobiton was a clear choice.

  • Prepare Your App for Testing. Next, you’ll want to compile and prepare the app for upload.
  • Upload Your App to Kobiton. Ready to upload the app binary to Kobiton? Great!  Either upload an application with a URL, or an application on the Kobiton App Repository:
    • Hybrid/Native from URL
      • Application URL
    • Hybrid/Native from apps
      • Select App from Apps Repo
  • Choose Real Devices for Testing. Then, you can select whichever pertinent devices you’d like to evaluate for testing.
  • Configure Test Settings. Next, set your desired capabilities or other test configurations.
  • Run the Test on the Real Device. Initiate a test run, and keep a file with your immediate notes or observations.
  • Review Test Results. Kobiton makes it easy to check out your test results; now you can access and review those test results.
  • Iterate Based on Real Device Feedback. Depending on your feedback, we can now provide advice on ways to refine the tests or app code, to determine better solutions based on activity.
  • Integrate with CI/CD. Finally, automate the mobile automation testing process using CI/CD integrations with Kobiton.

Advanced Espresso Techniques

RecyclerView Testing

Test interactions within RecyclerView — a ViewGroup that contains views as they correspond with data.

Combining Matchers

For more complex view matching scenarios, use multiple matchers together.

Custom ViewMatchers, ViewActions, and ViewAssertions 

You’ll also want to create custom matchers, actions, and assertions, when built-ins simply don’t suffice. This activity will provide more in-depth data.

Handling UI Components Outside App Context

You can use UiAutomator with Espresso to handle system components. 

Repeated Test Runs with Different Parameters 

Parameterized tests can run the same test logic with varied inputs.

Get Started with Kobiton Today 

We hope this Espresso Android testing tutorial has been helpful; You should now have a better idea of Android Espresso test examples and related activity for QA. Ready for a free demo, or how to take steps for more information about best practices? Experienced Kobiton associates are standing by to assist with Espresso, XCTest, and Appium solutions that can ease development timeline concerns and get your apps into the hands of users more quickly. Get started by contacting Kobiton today.

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